|Life under occupation|
| Palestinian death toll triples this year||Eric Silver - the Independent - "The number of Palestinians killed by Israeli security forces in the West Bank and Gaza Strip tripled this year, according to an Israeli human rights organisation. B`Tselem said 660 Palestinians had been killed during 2006, including 141 minors. The report claimed that at least 322 of those killed were not fighters."||1/1/2007|
|Getting killed for an illusion||Amira Hass - Haaretz - "The armed security organs of Fatah and Hamas were sent to fight, to kill and to endanger the welfare of the entire
public in order to uphold the illusion of self-government under a foreign occupier, disguised as a concerned neighbor"
|PPS: Prisoners in AL-RAmla Israeli Jail Suffer Deteriorated Health Conditions ||Palestinian Prisoners Society -
"One of the of the prisoners is a 16-yaer-old and suffers from heart disease and he is in bad health condition," Naser said."
|Palestinian families exert their clout amid factional||Dion Nissenbaum -
McClatchy Newspapers -
""Unfortunately we reached a state that we never planned to
|Gaza truce holds despite shooting ||Agencies -
"The ceasefire had appeared to be holding, bringing people out of their homes for the first time in five days as shops reopened and traffic again clogged Gaza`s narrow streets."
|`A fence is a ghetto`||Yoav Stern
Haaretz - "[Eastern Barta`a] is
the only place in the West Bank, except for East
Jerusalem, where Jews still come to shop. But the plan to
erect a fence in the center of the village that straddles
the Green Line threatens to put an end to the economic
boom that village residents currently enjoy.
... "Israel can build whatever it wants to defend itself, but
why must it do so at our expense? Israel can build a fence
inside its own territory," says Habaib.
|Hope is a scarce commodity||Eoin Murrai - The Electronic Intifada - "It is an all too familiar sound. Gunfire and explosions echo accross the night in Gaza City. Yet, this evening, once again the sounds are not caused by fighting between the Israeli military and the Palestinian militants. ...In Gaza hope is a scarce commodity, available only for the few not for the many."||30/1/2007|
|HEBRON REFLECTION: Commentary on recent video showing: Hebron settler woman harassing Abu Aisha family||Mary Lawrence - CPT - "For most people who have served in Hebron, what the settler woman was doing in the video seemed tame when compared to the settler violence they had witnessed since 1995."||30/1/2007|
|Internal Palestinian Fighting Continues...||1) Field update by Palestinian Centre for Human Rights; 2) "25 killed in Gaza violence as factions abandon talks" - Conal Urquhart - the Guardian; 3) "Palestinian prisoners condemn internal fighting and threaten to hunger strike " -
Ma`an; 4) "Hamas and Fatah agree ceasefire" - Aljazeera
| West Bank heart surgeon faces possible deportation from Israel||Reuters - Haaretz||29/1/2007|
|An eye for an eye in Gaza||Laila El-Haddad - al-Jazeera - Since mid-December, more than 40 Palestinians have been killed and scores injured in what has been described as a power struggle between supporters of Hamas and those of Fatah. The fighting has also encompassed clan feuds and vigilante groups. Laila El-Haddad spoke to four of those involved in the fighting, asking why they had participated and what they thought the future may hold.
|`I`ve lost my heart` ||Gideon Levy - Haaretz - "When I was released in 1992 an atmosphere of hope had already become evident. I got married and started to have children. I would always dream about them, that they wouldn`t live the bad life my generation lived. I wanted to protect them. To explain everything to them so that they wouldn`t grow up like me, not knowing anything. That they would know what Palestinians are and what Israelis are ...||27/1/2007|
|PA to give stateless Palestinians IDs to facilitate movement ||AP - Haaretz - The Palestinian government has begun issuing papers to thousands of Gaza residents caught in a legal limbo with no residence permits, an Interior Ministry official said yesterday - but Israel continues to regard them as non-persons.||27/1/2007|
|Gaza death toll has reached 18 in Fatah-Hamas 48-hour infighting ||Wisam Afifeh/Avi Issacharoff - PNN/Haaretz - The death toll has reached 18 in nearly 48 hours. Clashes between Executive Forces and the security services have been heaviest in the Shajaiyeh neighborhood, near the Al Azhar and Islamic universities, in Tel Al Howa, and around Shifa Hospital.
|Fence cuts Palestinian cave dwellers off from wood||Haitham Tamimi - Reuters - "Quina Foq`s inhabitants eke out a living farming and herding sheep in the rocky hills about 40 km (25 miles) south of the West Bank city of Hebron. Many of the children go to school in the nearest Palestinian town, As-Samu`: an hour`s donkey trek"||25/1/2007|
|Political Statement and Call to Action on Palestine||Joint Delegation of Palestinian Civil Society to the World Social Forum - ZNet - "Poverty, unemployment, de-development, and destabilization of vital institutions providing health care, education and social services were among the immediate results of this merciless blockade."||25/1/2007|
|Death in Gaza: Israeli forces kill teenage boy, 45-year-old man dies after being arrested by the Executive Force ||Maan News Agency - "Israeli forces killed a Palestinian boy, east of Deir Al Balah, in the center of the Gaza Strip, on Wednesday morning, and injured two others before arresting them and taking them to an unknown destination."
|Closure of the Rafah Border crossing barred 200 patients from traveling to Egypt for treatment||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC & Agencies - "The Palestinian Ministry of Health reported on Wednesday that the Israeli closure of the Rafah Border Crossing, between the Gaza Strip and Egypt, is barring the patients who require medical treatment in Egypt from traveling, which caused them further health complications."
|Jerusalem municipality demolishes two Palestinian houses in Jerusalem||Saed Bannoura -
"At least 4,170 Palestinian homes have been demolished by Israel, in the Palestinian territories, since September 29, 2000."
|Hebron Occupied, And Deserted||Nora Barrows-Friedman -
"Here, 650 settlers run the town, and 150,000 Palestinians pay the price."||24/1/2007|
|Clowns and Soldiers||Art Gish - CPT - reporting from At-Tuwani||23/1/2007|
|The Coming Storm|| Nora Barrows-Friedman in Dheisheh, West Bank
The Electronic Intifada -
"In Gaza, a colleague there said that people have
begun to run out of cooking gas and cigarettes, that
people stay in bed out of hunger, cold and searing
depression. For the three and a half million Palestinians
living in the ghetto prison of the West Bank, they can see
that the escalating squalor-nightmare of Gaza is on its
way here, tumbling over the wet hillsides like a silent,
|Far from the cameras, army invades Yatta ||Ghassan Bannoura - IMEMC - Issa Al Imor, 26, and Ahmad Murr, 25, were abducted by Israeli troops and taken to an unknown location when soldiers attacked and searched their families` homes in the village.||22/1/2007|
|Palestinian Poll: Abbas 35%, Haniyye 26 %, Barghouthi 21.8%||Dr. Nabil Kukali - Palestinian Center For Public Opinion - 59.4 % of the Palestinians are in favor of holding presidential elections. 60.7% are in favor of holding new PLC elections. 35.0% are in favor of Mr. Mahmoud Abbas for the PA presidency, 26 % would vote for Mr. Ismael Haniyye, and 21.8% are in favor of Marwan Barghouthi.
|Reconciliation talks in Damascus - closed border at Rafah ||Mohammad Omer - Rafah Today - Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas and exiled Hamas supremo Khaled Mashaal told a media conference after they met for three hours in Damascus on Sunday night they had made "considerable progress" but that differences remained. Meanwhile at Rafah, Israel said that the border will open for 2 days, Monday and Tuesday, but late after mid night, the news spread about closing the border and not considering opening it, despite the fact that there are thousands of people who are stuck on the border and can`t return to their homes.||22/1/2007|
|Christmas in Gaza||Samuel Martin - Caritas Jerusalem - Like some Palestinians, Mr. Sweilem is still hopeful for having a better situation in the future. He pointed out, "Gaza needs a lot after the destruction that it witnessed. Many people are leaving Gaza, but I want people to stay and rebuild Gaza, not to destroy it or leave it. I think next year we will have a much better atmosphere than what we have today, because what we are in now is the worst. Any other situation than the current one is better than what we have now."
|Security chaos: misuse of weapons by armed groups and security personnel||PCHR Gaza - PCHR is concerned over the continued falling of victims due to the misuse of weapons. The Centre reiterates the call to the Palestinian National Authority, represented by the Attorney-General, to seriously investigate these crimes||21/1/2007|
|A regime of ordinances and prohibitions has emptied the roads of the West Bank||Amira Hass - Haaretz - Travel prohibitions and roadblocks have diminished the physical space that remains at the disposal of Palestinians, divided the West Bank into enclaves surrounded by a continuity of settlements, and lengthened the distance between every district, village and city. ||21/1/2007|
|MPs attack UK-backed financial boycott of Palestinian Authority||Ian Black - The Guardian - "Rapidly deteriorating conditions in the West Bank and Gaza
Strip risk blocking the creation of a viable Palestinian
state, MPs warn today in a thinly veiled attack on British
policy in the Middle East."
|PNN: “Displaced from Aqaba as Israeli forces confiscate Jordan Valley village”||Ali Samoudi -
The President of the Aqaba Village Council says the small community in the Jordan Valley is facing a new scheme which includes demolishing the village mosque, kindergarten, clinic and rural women’s center. Israeli forces issued 19 more demolition orders for houses and organizations that will replace Aqaba with military installations.
|ACTV : The prisoners children (Link to Video)||Almost 9,000 Palestinians are being held in prisons inside Israel, in violation of international humanitarian law.
|Abbas-Meshal Talks postponed||al-Jazeera - A meeting scheduled between Mahmoud Abbas, the Palestinian president, and Khalid Meshaal, head of the ruling Hamas party, has been postponed, according to a senior Palestinian official.
|Britain concerned at death of Palestinian child||Palestine Times - The British Foreign Office Minister Kim Howells said: "I was deeply concerned to hear of the death today of a ten year old Palestinian girl as a result of an Israeli operation in Anata, east of Jerusalem. We understand that Israel has begun an investigation into this incident, and urge the Israeli authorities to make this as thorough as possible." ||20/1/2007|
|Palestinian who died in Israeli jail is buried||Palestine Times - Hundreds of Palestinians, on Thursday, took part in the funeral of 38-year-old Jamal al-Sarahin at his home town of Beit Ula, west of the southern West Bank city of al-Khalil [Hebron]. Sarahin died at an Israeli prison last Tuesday as a result of medical neglect. The corpse of Sarahin was transported by an Israeli ambulance to the Tarqomia roadblock where it was received by tens of his town`s people who carried it to the deceased`s home for a final farewell before taken to be buried.
|`Invisible hand` of Israel in Gaza ||Laila El-Haddad -Al Jazeera-"A Gaza university cannot receive visits from a foreign lecturer unless Israel issues a visitor`s permit; a Gaza mother cannot register her child in the Palestinian population registry without Israeli approval; and a Gaza fisherman cannot fish off the coast of Gaza without permission from Israel,"||19/1/2007|
|REFLECTION Hebron: A Different News||Michael Fay - CPT -"The man kept walking. Yitzhak gave the order to stop again as he aimed his gun at the man`s legs. The man kept walking. Yitzhak shot. They had to leave the man there for hours as they tried to determine if there was a bomb attached to his body. When they finally reached the man, they found that he was no threat at all. Yitzhak couldn`t remember if he was mentally retarded or deaf or both, but he certainly did not forget the incident."||19/1/2007|
|A Palestinian Prisoner Dies in an Israeli Prison||PCHR- Press Release-"PCHR holds the Israeli government fully responsible for al-Sarahin’s death and the lives of other sick prisoners who are likely to face the same destiny due to the policy of medical negligence, the inappropriate detention conditions and the physical and psychological torture they are subjected to.
|Palestinians: Girl, 10, seriously hurt by Border Police fire||Yair Ettinger- Haaretz-"Sixth-graders at the local elementary school for girls went to recess at the same time as the clashes. Abir Aramin and her sister Arin, who are classmates, went to buy some candy at a nearby store, when Abir suddenly began bleeding from the head and collapsed.
... "Border Policemen see our children as targets, terrorists. They think if they shoot a 10-year-old girl they are serving the country`s security.""||19/1/2007|
|Changes to denial of entry policy fail to resolve crisis||Electronic Intifada - "Currently, Israel is refusing to consider over 120,000 applications for family unification, forcing many families to relocate abroad. Together with many foreign nationals who have established their primary business or professional activities in the oPt, or otherwise aspire to build their lives in the oPt, these new procedures place them, at best, in a state of continuous uncertainty, under constant threat of expulsion and exclusion."
|Israeli army invades Nablus, kills 22-year-old Fatah operative ||Maan News - "In a major military operation, the Israeli army has shot dead a member of a previously unknown armed wing of Fatah on Thursday morning in the old city of Nablus, in the north of the occupied West Bank. "||18/1/2007|
|Disengaged Occupiers : The Legal Status of Gaza||Gisha - Legal Center for Freedom of Movement - Position Paper - The position paper argues that despite the removal of settlements and permanent army bases from Gaza, Israel continues to control life in Gaza through an “invisible hand”: control over borders, air space, territorial waters, population registry, taxation system, supply of goods, and control over the ability of the Palestinian Authority to function. The paper challenges an assumption held by Israelis and even some international policy-makers that Israel’s “disengagement” plan ended the occupation of Gaza.
|The High Court of Justice is in no hurry ||Amira Hass -
"The founders of apartheid in South Africa would have been proud."
|IDF freezes ban on Israelis carrying West Bank residents in their cars ||Amos Harel -
"The order was said to help stop the smuggling of Palestinians into Israel in cars that belong to Israelis (for the most part, Israeli Arabs)."||17/1/2007|
|Tomatoes, Gas, Coffee and their Stories||Kole Ellis -
"Israel will not sell gas to the Palestinians. `What do people do without?` I asked. `They don`t cook, and they stay in bed,` a friend said." ||17/1/2007|
|Leaving Las Vegas, or getting out of Gaza||Electronic Intifada - Dr. Bill Dienst describes crossing of the Erez Terminal ||16/1/2007|
|Two Palestinians killed by Israeli military fire in the Gaza Strip; Israeli troops and bulldozers attack a village near Bethlehem; Israeli Army abducts fourteen Palestinian|| ||15/1/2007|
|Jordan Valley crossing opened - but at Taysir, things are worse || Amira Hass - Haaretz - The only real easing of easing of restrictions on Palestinians, among those decided upon by the Defense Ministry, is the opening of the Bezek crossing to the use of Palestinian farmers. The crossing opened despite a widescale campaign by Jordan Valley settlers to prevent it, on the grounds that Palestinian traffic on the Jordan Valley Highway would "endanger their security". However, the army keeps in place the prohbition on Palestinians to enter the Jordan valley, other than the small number living there. ||15/1/2007|
|The victims of Gaza`s identity crisis||David Sharrock -- Times on Line -- # Israel has frozen Palestinian register # Thousands have no official papers||15/1/2007|
|Hebron update, 1-7 January 2007||Christian Peacemaker Teams Hebron - CPT`s observations on another week of life under occupation in the tormented city of Hebron||14/1/2007|
|Jordan Valley crossing opened - but at Taysir, things are worse ||Amira Hass - Haaretz - The only real easing of easing of restrictions on Palestinians, among those decided upon by the Defense Ministry, is the opening of the Bezek crossing to the use of Palestinian farmers. The crossing opened despite a widescale campaign by Jordan Valley settlers to prevent it, on the grounds that Palestinian traffic on the Jordan Valley Highway would "endanger their security". However, the army keeps in place the prohbition on Palestinians to enter the Jordan valley, other than the small number living there. ||13/1/2007|
|Immigration policy forces researchers out of West Bank||Jim Giles - Nature - "Holders of foreign passports are finding their access to the West Bank denied or restricted by Israeli border controls."
[see also appended article by Jacob Katriel].||12/1/2007|
|Palestinian family reunification law gets two-month extension||Gideon Alon- Haaretz-"..he convinced Livni to extend the Emergency Order for only two more months, in order to send a message to the Palestinians that Israel wishes to renew peace talks."||12/1/2007|
|Palestinians: Two Palestinian fishermen wounded by IDF fire||Amos Harel and Avi Isacharof- Haaretz-"..two Palestinian fishermen were wounded when an Israel Defense Forces ship fired upon them near the Gaza shore. According to the report, a third fisherman was missing."||12/1/2007|
|ACRI demands renewal of tourist visa for foreign national spouse ||Press Release -
"It was marked on her permit that this was the “final extension.” As a result, she is compelled to leave the country in order to renew the validity of her visa."||10/1/2007|
|Israel`s purging of Palestinian Christians ||Jonathan Cook -
Maan News -
"There are no precise figures, but the Israeli media suggests that Christians, who once constituted as much as 15 per cent of the occupied territories` Palestinians, are now just 2 or 3 per cent."
|Jameel Jweles came to Ramallah to shop but was shot dead by Israeli soldiers||Mohammad Abed Rabbo -
Palestine Times -
"He was buried at the Martyrs Cemetery in the nearby town of Anata."
|Palestinian workers inside Israeli boundaries brutally beaten and forced to strip naked||Palestine News Network
|B`Tselem: Repeal order forbidding transporting Palestinians in Israeli vehicles||"The separation between Israelis and Palestinians is not new. Yet, until now, it was seen, primarily, in measures taken in the public sphere, for example, by building the separation barrier, prohibiting Palestinian vehicles on certain roads, and forbidding Israelis to enter Area A. The new order, on the other hand, penetrates into the private space of the vehicle, with the objective of separating two persons lawfully present in the area. Furthermore, the very use of legislation to force separation between people based on their nationality raises associations with the loathsome regimes that nobody seeks to resemble. "
|Twilight Zone / What are you doing for the holiday? ||Gideon Levy -
Haaretz - on the Occupation after "easing of restrictions of the closure"||9/1/2007|
|Troops at Girit outpost: We were ordered to shoot to kill||Yuval Yoaz -- Haaretz -- "Soldiers and officers at the Girit outpost in the Gaza Strip claim to have received orders that at night, they were always to shoot to kill - even though this violated the official rules of engagement in Gaza, according to a High Court of Justice ruling that ordered the army to open an investigation into the issue. The decision, issued in response to a petition by the family of Iman al-Hams, a 13-year-old girl who was killed by soldiers at the outpost in October 2004, was handed down a month ago. However, the court published the basis for its decision only yesterday"||8/1/2007|
|PCHR calls for end to violence between Fatah and Hamas||Palestinian Centre for Human Rights - Press Release - PCHR strongly condemns bloody incidents in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT), especially the Gaza Strip, that have taken place in the context of the persistent political conflict between Hamas and Fatah movements.||7/1/2007|
|Israeli troops abduct four in Nablus||al-Jazeera - Adli Yaaish, Nablus mayor said: "The Israeli army has surrounded a big area in Nablus city and forced children and women out of their houses despite the extremely cold weather". ||7/1/2007|
|Nablus deputy mayor abducted||al-Jazeera - An armed group of Fatah’s al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades has released footage claiming responsibility for capturing the deputy mayor of Nablus city.
|Detainees in Hadarim call for an end to internal clashes||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC - Palestinian detainees imprisoned at the Hadarim Israeli detention facility called on the Palestinian factions to end all sorts of internal clashes and violence. The detainees said that the factions should resolve their differences peacefully instead of resorting to violence. The detainees who are confined to solitary said that all detainees in every detention facility will carry a hunger strike on January 14 and several strikes in February and March.
|The IDF and my daughter`s hamburger||Sam Bahour - "Well, we were in the center of Ramallah yesterday afternoon, at 3:40pm when the almighty Israeli military decided, again, that it was time to wreak havoc on our city. I should not really complain since what happened in Ramallah yesterday happens across the West Bank and Gaza regularly. ||6/1/2007|
|Sad holiday - a report from within on how Palestinians survive||Adel Shadid - Thousands live in such dire conditions that they can only dream of vegetables and bread; they pass whole long days without any food, pass the cold mountain winter without heating, lighting candles in order to save electricity, walking on foot or riding donkeys in order to save travelling fares. The number of the poor and hungry is ever growing. The unemployment rate among Palestinians is enormous, and in practice it can be said that the entire Palestinian people is unemployed.||6/1/2007|
|The Shuhada Street opened? Not quite ||Akiva Eldar - Haaretz - senior IDF officers discovered that the closure of Old Hebron`s Shuhada Street to Palestinians had been done "by mistake." The mistake has now lasted for six years. Activists from the Israeli organization Children of Abraham and from the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) accompanied Palestinians trying to benefit from the army discovering its mistake. The results were rather predictable.
|Family of a ten-year-old Palestinian child killed by the army demand justice to be served||Saed Bannoura-IMEMC & Agencies-"The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in The Occupied Territories, B`Tselem, reported that it conducted a probe at the location of the shooting and collected testimonies that revealed that there was no clashes at the time of the shooting."||26/1/2007|
|B`Tselem: Stop using undercover forces in combat actions||B`Tselem/Electronic Intifada-"The incident in Ramallah is a clear example of why the prohibition on combatants feigning civilian status was created. Many civilians were killed and wounded after being caught unawares in the area because they could not identify the disguised combatants among them."||26/1/2007|
|Lost in the machine||Erica Silverman-Al Ahram Weekly-"On 26 June Israel launched Operation Summer Rain with the announced goals of freeing Shalit and halting rocket fire into Israel from Gaza. According to an annual report published by B`Tselem, 405 Palestinians were killed in Gaza by Israeli forces since 25 June, including 88 children and 205 bystanders."||26/1/2007|
|Severe Methods of Torture Still Practiced in Israel: Case of the Month: Rasem Inad Ahmad Obeidat||United Against Torture-"According to his testimony, while he was interrogated in the Russian Compound detention center (Moskobiyya), he was subjected to non-stop beatings all over his body, as well as to shabeh, mainly the “frog position.” The High Court decision noted that even before its ruling in 1999, the State claimed that it had ceased using the “frog crouch” interrogation method, consisting of consecutive, periodical crouches on the tips of one’s toes, each lasting for several minute intervals."||26/1/2007|
|Security Chaos -Clashes between Armed Groups and Security Forces-Seven Injured, including 2 Children||PCHR-Field Update-"PCHR is concerned over the continued falling of victims due to the use of arms by armed individuals and groups. This is a continuum of the security chaos plaguing the OPT. the Centre calls upon the PNA, represented by the Attorney-General, to investigate these crimes and bring the perpetrators to justice. "||26/1/2007|
|LEAKED ISRAELI DOCUMENT GIVES FRIGHTENING GLIMPSE OF APARTHEID||Ali Abunimah-The Electronic Intifada-"In fact, the Israeli
newspaper Ha`aretz reported on January 22, the Israeli
army "admitted on Sunday that the 44 dirt obstacles it
said had been removed from around West Bank villages did
not actually exist." "||26/1/2007|
|On tape: Palestinians harassed in Hebron ‘cage’||Ali Waked-Ynet News-“The latest fashion during this cold winter – the settlers spray us with cold water using a big fire hose located near the house.”
| Large Police Force Destroys an Entire Bedouin Village||Gush Shalom/The Other Israel-Press Release-"Where will my children sleep tonight, in this terrible cold?” cried the mother of ten. Large police forces deployed to destroy an entire Bedouin village north of Be’er Sheba. 21 houses were demolished, leaving 500 people homeless." (See also article posted Dec. 7 2006)||12/1/2007|
|Barghouthi threatens to go on hunger strike if internal clashes do not cease||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC & Agencies - "The jailed Fateh leader, Marwan Barghouthi, released a statement calling for the end of internal clashes and renouncing the violence that threatens the Palestinian people and their National interests. In the statement, Barghouthi threatened to go on hunger strike if the clashes do not cease"||11/1/2007|
|"I was born here 80 years ago. I prefer death than to see the Wall eat my home." ||Najib Farrag- Palestine News Network/IMEMC-"The Village Council President reiterated a sentiment becoming more common in international, and even in some Israeli, discourse. “Israeli forces aim to confiscate more Palestinian land with this Wall. Their claim that it has anything to do with security reasons is false.” "||5/1/2007|
|Haniyya: “Our weapons should be against the occupation, not against each other” ||Sa`ed Bannoura - IMEMC & Agencies-“He [Olmert] retracted from all understandings he reached with president Mahmoud Abbas”, Haniyya stated, “He did not release detainees, did not reduce checkpoints or reduce the suffering of our people”.||5/1/2007|
|Fear Is a Powerful Stimulant||Dr. Bill Dienst - EI -"I am not as scared as I was on the first night at Hotel Al Deira, though we are in a more dangerous spot. I am strangely getting used to this. Fear is a powerful stimulant which makes you feel excited and euphoric about still being alive, when death and destruction are so near, and hopeful that you will remain so. "||5/1/2007|
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