|Life under occupation|
|Conflicting claims over Gaza deaths ||Al Jazeera - Differing accounts have emerged of what caused four Palestinian children and their mother to die during an Israeli air raid on the Gaza Strip. While Palestinian witnesses blamed Monday`s deaths on an Israeli missile, the Israelis say the blast was caused when explosives carried by Palestinian fighters detonated during the raid.
|The Palestinian Authority in Ramallah to implement an electricity supply project in Gaza||Rami Almeghari - IMEMC - Palestinian information minister and spokesman of the Ramallah-based government , Riyad aL-Maliki, said yesterday that his government had agreed with the Egypt to connecting the Gaza Strip`s electricity lines with the Egyptian ones, within a grand project.
|Border Guard officer gets 6.5 years for killing Palestinian teen||Aviram Zino/Saed Bannoura - Y-Net/IMEMC - Jerusalem District Court sentences Border Guard officer Yanai Lalza to six and a half years` imprisonment convicted for killing a Hebron teen, throwing him off moving jeep. Given the deduction of a third "for good behaviour", available to Israeli but not to Palestinian prisoners, the actual term would amount to four years. Justice Orit Efal Gabai refrained from handing down a tougher sentence "due to Lalza`s family`s dire financial situation and the fact that his father suffers from depression and other mental problems". ||29/4/2008|
|Right to Enter Campaign delegation meets with Blair ||Sam Bahour/Rasha Mukbil - Right to Enter Campaign - Quartet Representative Tony Blair met with representatives of the Campaign for the Right to Enter on 17 April to discuss the obstacles that foreign passport holders encounter when they seek to enter or reside in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). In the past two years, hundreds of Palestinians with foreign passports and other foreign nationals have been denied entry into the oPt. Many others have been denied permits to stay in the oPt and expelled. Campaign members drew Mr Blair`s attention to the futility of attempting to attract investment in the oPt while the ability of investors` to directly manage and oversee their investments and the ability of Palestinian institutions and businesses to recruit and retain the human resources needed for development remains uncertain and subject to Israel`s political discretion.
|AT-TUWANI: Palestinians delayed by Israeli settlers gathering in defiance of military order||Christian Peacemaker Teams Hebron - On Thursday 24 April 2008 Israeli military authorities declared the area north of route 317 (across from the village of At-Tuwani) a closed military zone. They began to enforce this from approximately 3.15 pm. Palestinian drivers stopped either side of this area but over thirty Israeli settlers violated the order from 4.20 pm.||27/4/2008|
|Gaza`s sewage `tsunami`||Jeremy Bowen -BBC - "Sadi said that the lakes are 11m (36ft) higher than the surrounding land, and only the earth walls around them hold the muck in.
If the dykes burst a tsunami of sewage 6m (20ft) or 7m (23ft) high would swamp an area inhabited by 10,000 people. "||26/4/2008|
|Eyewitness letter from the Gaza Strip||Kashfi Halford - "I wanted to go into Gaza to photograph and witness first hand what is really happening there. I am not a politician, or a doctor or an AID worker, I am simply someone who feels that the international community (you) needs to know what is going on, and hopefully to put pressure on Israel to do it`s job and provide basic human rights for the people of Gaza."||26/4/2008|
|4 siblings killed in IDF strike in Gaza ||Ali Waked - Ynet - Four Palestinian children, all members of one family, were killed Monday morning in Israel Defense Forces strike in the northern Gaza Strip, Palestinian sources have reported. According to the report, an IDF shell hit a house in the town of Beit Hanoun, killing four members of the Abu-Muaatak family – a baby named Muasab and his brothers Salah, Hana and Rudeineh – all of them less than six years of age. Their mother was initially in a state of brain death and later died of her wounds.
|Impending closure of schools & orphanages in Hebron||CPT-Press Conference-"Without court approved justification, the army has already raided the central warehouse and confiscated over $300,000 worth of school supplies, clothing and food as well as two new school buses, and a van. They raided the bakeries that had been supplying the orphanages,removing inventory and destroying ovens. The military welded shut the gates of a $2,000,000 school for 1200 students, scheduled to open in September..The ICS provides shelter and care to 240 orphans in the orphanages,educates more than 1700 students and aids an additional 4000 students and 5000 needy families."||25/4/2008|
|Amnesty International Urgent Action 103/08 Medical Concern||Amnesty International-"In the past week three
shuttle-buses that would have enabled dozens of medical patients to
access treatment were scheduled then cancelled. The patients remain
trapped in Gaza. The Israeli authorities have now closed the borders
with the Gaza Strip and the West Bank until the end of the Jewish
Passover festival on 27 April. Currently, there is no indication when
another shuttle bus may be scheduled."||25/4/2008|
|Gaza siege taxes sick and wounded||MEL FRYKBERG - Middle East Times - The human rights organization [Physicians forHuman Rights} said that 32 Palestinians had died while awaiting entry permits for treatment in Israel since October 2007 and added that the Shin Bet had no reason to classify the patients as `security risks` and deny them entry into Israel.
|Fuel shortage forces UN to halt Gaza food aid||Rory McCarthy - The Guardian - A shortage of diesel and petrol means UN food assistance to 650,000 Palestinian refugees will stop tomorrow, and aid from the World Food Programme for another 127,000 Palestinians due in the coming days will also be halted. "The collective punishment of the population of Gaza, which has been instituted for months now, has failed," said Robert Serry, the UN special coordinator for the Middle East.
|Israel`s Occupation||Neve Gordon - Book`s Preface - When I was a high school student, by contrast, I frequently hitched a ride back from school with Palestinian taxis on their way from Gaza to Beer-Sheva. Within the current context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, this act is unfathomable. No taxis from the OT are allowed to enter Israel, and even if they had somehow managed to obtain an entry permit, Israeli Jews would be afraid to use them. Palestinians, who not so long ago were an integral part of the Israeli landscape, primarily as low-wage laborers who built houses, cleaned streets, and worked in agriculture, have literally disappeared. If in 1981 most Israelis and Palestinians could travel freely between the OT and Israel proper (the pre-1967 borders) and, in many respects, felt safe doing so, currently Palestinians are locked up in the Gaza Strip, and Israelis are not permitted to enter the region. ||24/4/2008|
|Aqaba at the Supreme Court - a village`s fate in the balance ||Adam Keller - Gush Shalom - This account ends with an urgent request for donations, with the intervening text explaining exactly why they are very much needed. If you have no time to read everything, please go to the end - that is, in fact, the most important part!
|Palestinians killed, detained at Beit Lahia, Beit Hanoun, Rafah||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC - A total of five Palestinians were killed in three separate Israeli attacks on various parts of the Gaza Strip during a single day - considered a quite "routine" and "unevetful" day. 27 Palestinians were carried off by the soldiers, ther hands bound and their eyes covered ("detained" in Israeli communiques, "kidnapped" as far as Palestinians are concerned). ||22/4/2008|
|More Palestinian patients being denied entry to Israel||Meital Yasur-Beit Or -- YNET - Figures presented by Physicians for Human Rights from early April indicate Shin Bet rejected entry requests of 12 grievously ill cancer patients from Gaza||21/4/2008|
|Probe sought of whether Israel targetted media crew||Reuters/Commondreams - A leading human rights group called on Friday for an independent investigation into the death of a Reuters cameraman and other civilians in Gaza this week, saying Israeli forces may have targeted the media.||20/4/2008|
|Carter: blockade of Gaza is an abomination||Robert Naiman - ZNet/Just Foreign Policy - Just Foreign Policy and Jewish Voice for Peace have initiated a petition to the Presidential candidates, asking them to support President Carter and support talks with Hamas. Let`s not let another opportunity to push forward for peace slip away.
|Journey to Hebron: nightmares and hope||Gershom Gorenberg - A group of religious Israeli Jews pay a solidarity visit to a Palestinian family in Hebron||20/4/2008|
|Our reign of terror, by the Israeli army|| Donald Macintyre - The Independent - "In shocking testimonies that reveal abductions, beatings and torture, Israeli soldiers confess the horror they have visited on Hebron"||19/4/2008|
|A Report on the Emergency Situation of the Shepherds in south Mt. Hebron||Ehud Krinis-Villages Group-"The local Jewish colonists are constantly active, de-facto-annexing more and more land into their direct control, all under the auspices and with the blessing of Israeli government and Occupation authorities, thus further significantly reducing the grazing and sowing fields accessible to Palestinians. "||18/4/2008|
|Physicians for Human Rights-Israel Gaza Update 17.4.08||Physicians for Human Rights-Israel Gaza Update 17.4.08- "The GSS and the army depict the shuttle system as an effective response to the plight of many patients, including cancer patients, and an effective substitute for entry into Israel. Thus a flawed and deficient system is exploited as a fig leaf for the continuation of the GSS’s damaging policy towards the sick in the Gaza Strip, and as a tool for the State, enabling it, ostensibly, to boast of its “humanitarian” policy while cutting off patients’ access to medical centers in the West Bank and Israel. "||18/4/2008|
|Prisoners` Rights ||Adalah-Newsletter Vol 47 April 2008-"Unlike South Africa, where segregation was pursued directly against blacks, Israeli prisons practice separation indirectly, by classifying political prisoners as “security prisoners”. The overwhelming majority of prisoners given this classification by the Israel Prison Service are Palestinians. This classification allows Israel to disguise the racial segregation of prisoners in terms of their conditions of confinement. "||18/4/2008|
|20 die in Gaza clashes after fire fight at fuel crossing· Reuters cameraman dies in strike on press car ||Rory McCarthy - The Guardian -At least 17 Palestinians, including a Reuters television journalist, and three Israeli soldiers were killed in heavy fighting across Gaza yesterday, the violence starting close to the Nahal Oz fuel crossing, the sole supply line for fuel into the Strip||17/4/2008|
|Area C strikes fear into the hearts of Palestinians as homes are destroyed||Rory McCarthy - The Guardian - Research by the Israeli group Peace Now found that 94% of Palestinian permit applications for Area C building were refused between 2000 and September 2007. Only 91 permits were granted to Palestinians, but 18,472 housing units were built in Jewish settlements. As a result of demolition orders 1,663 Palestinian buildings were demolished, against only 199 in the settlements.||16/4/2008|
|"Family matters: using family members to pressure detainees under GSS interrogation"||Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI) - New report to be launched today in the Knesset Constitution, Law and Justice Committee:
The GSS illegally exploits family members causing severe harm to detainees and their families.||16/4/2008|
|The Sham of putting children on military trials||Patrick Moser - Agence France Presse/Arab News/Palestine Chronicle -Mohammed, 14, barely glanced at the Israeli military judge as he was led shuffling into the cramped courtroom, his legs in shackles. The trial lasted only a few minutes, the boy admitted to trowing rocks
and was sentenced to four months in prison. According to to his attorney, pleading non guilty would have just resulted in spending even more time behind bars.
|Update on military harassment of Hebron Schools and Orphanages||JoAnne Lingle - CPT Hebron - The army is severely harassing and closing down schools and orphanages in Hebron, with the proclaimed aim of to "weakening Hamas" by destroying the network of charitable organizations suppsedly affilated to it - at the const of enromous suffering to many children. CPT activists, based in Hebron, monitor army acts and provided regular reports. ||15/4/2008|
|Under army protection, settlers attack Palestinians near Bethlehem||Najeep Faraj/Saed Bannoura - IMEMC - The farmers said that they were farming their lands when at least a group of 15 settlers using rocks and batons attacked them. The farmers also stated that the settlers were protected by a battalion of Israeli soldiers. ||15/4/2008|
|Gaza universities and colleges closed due to fuel shortage ||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC - Students in the Gaza Strip are unable to travel to their universities due to the fuel crisis, and the campuses had to shut down. Shortages would soon affect other aspects of the civilian life, as hospitals and medical centers are already suffering from the blockade, and lacking basic supplies in addition to fuel needed to run power generators.
|Your protest can save Mousa Abu Maria from adminstrative detention!|| ||15/4/2008|
|Israeli Shin Bet admits interrogating relatives of Palestinian detainees to extract confession||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC & Agencies - "The Israeli Public Committee Against Torture submitted a report to the Knesset committee on Sunday, stating the Shin Bet justifies arrests of family members of Palestinian detainees in order to practice pressure on them. The report also stated that this method is used against detainees who were subjected to severe torture during interrogation"||14/4/2008|
|Israeli military trials impose `charade` of justice on Palestinian children||Patrick Moser, AFP - The Daily Star - "As of March 31, 324 Palestinian children were held in Israeli prisons, according to the Geneva-based Defence for Children International (DCI), an international rights group. […] The trials, conducted in Hebrew and translated into Arabic, generally last just a few minutes. Lawyers are at times denied access to documents, when military officials classify the evidence as secret. Some of the children never get a trial, but are held without charges under ‘administrative orders’ that can run up to six months and be renewed indefinitely"||14/4/2008|
|Israeli raid on Gaza `over`||Al Jazeera/Agencies - Israeli forces have withdrawn from the Gaza Strip, the Israeli army has said, after a raid that left at least seven people dead, including two children.
|Rabbis for Human Rights: update||RHR - an update on the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: Silwan, the Olive Tree Campaign, and more||13/4/2008|
|Israel removes fewer roadblocks than promised - UN||Adam Entous - Reuters - Israel has removed 44 roadblocks in the occupied West Bank, short of the number promised to U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, a United Nations agency has found.||13/4/2008|
|Occupation Diaries||AT-TUWANI REFLECTIONS, by CPT: A little girl`s story
- Maureen Jack; Shanti’s Shot Sheep - Jessica Frederick; DON`T SAY WE DID NOT KNOW 104 -
Amos Gvirtz - ICAHD; ||12/4/2008|
|Negotiating... or just talking? ||Issa Samander - Bitterlemons - The proof is in the pudding. When we no longer see Israeli bulldozers digging up our land we may believe there is progress. When we can bring our produce to the market without begging permission from the Israeli army, then we may believe there is progress. When we can attend our places of worship, our schools, our hospitals, visit our relatives and travel to neighboring towns and villages without waiting for permission from teenage soldiers in the middle of nowhere, then we may believe there is progress. When we see those nice red-roofed houses that have spread like a cancer across our hilltops start being taken down rather than put up, then we may believe there is progress.
|New York commemorates Deir Yassin massacre ||Adalah-NY - Press release - Eitan Bronstein, an Israeli educator, activist and Director of Zochrot (Hebrew for "remembering"), gave a presentation about his organization`s work to raise awareness among Israeli Jews on the Nakba. Bronstein noted that "there is almost total ignorance in Israel about the Nakbah. ... And Deir Yassin is a good example of that. Until today, there is no monument for the Deir Yassin massacre; there are no signs there; someone who passed by on the street in the neighborhood would not know that this is Deir Yassin." Bronstein showed photos of events Zochrot has organized at Deir Yassin to commemorate the massacre||10/4/2008|
|Hebron Orphanages Press Conference||CPTHebron - Press Release - The lawyer representing the Islamic Charitable Societies spoke of the invaluable work of serving 2,500 children, 240 of them orphans, aiding an additional 4,000 students and 5,000 needy families, running a dairy and 2 bakeries, a warehouse and 4 small store fronts which serve the schools and orphanages of the Hebron area. The warehouse, bakeries and the storefronts were raided on 6 March 2008. The Israeli Military confiscated food, clothing, school supplies, refrigerators and 2 buses worth $300,000.
|Gazans` Latest Crisis: Fuel Cuts ||ASSOCIATED PRESS -
"``We are like street dogs looking for bones,`` said Abdul Ghani, a 44-year-old taxi driver, smoking by his car at a gas station in the northern Gazan town of Jebaliya. Around 200 cars, taxis, delivery trucks and farm machinery vehicles were parked there, waiting for the gas station to distribute rationed supplies. Some drivers abandoned their cars, while others sold their places in line."||9/4/2008|
|Indy Global Report` from Bethlehem, the 7th April 2008||Pennie Quinton -
"The "Cemetery of Numbers" is a name for secret graveyards where Israel keeps the dead bodies of its` political enemies."
|Israeli soldiers continue to use civilians as human shields||Saed Bannoura -
"On 6 October 2005, the High Court of Justice ruled that it was illegal for the army to use Palestinian civilians during military actions."
|Palestinian Olympic runner receives exit permit||Zadok Yehezkeli -
""This could have been made possible months ago. It just shows the inexcusability of imprisoning and punishing over a million people.""
| No checkpoints in heaven ||Ramzy Baroud - PalestineChronicle/Electronic Intifada - When the Palestinian uprising of 1987 exploded our camp became a battleground between stone-throwers and the Israeli army, mere survival became Dad`s new obsession. Our house was the closest to the Red Square, arbitrarily named for the blood spilled there, and also bordered the "Martyrs` Graveyard." How can a father adequately protect his family in such surroundings? Israeli soldiers stormed our house hundreds of times; it was always him who somehow held them back, begging for his children`s safety, as we huddled in a dark room awaiting our fate. "You will understand when you have your own children," he told my older brothers as they protested his allowing the soldiers to slap his face. Our "freedom-fighting" dad struggled to explain how love for his children could surpass his own pride. He grew in my eyes that day.
|Returning to Nablus: Collateral Damage ||Alice Rothchild - Miftah - The delegates were ushered into one apartment after another, richly upholstered living room furniture, formal dining room tables, long white draperies, decorative wooden head boards, posters in a child`s room, a blinking TV, now all splattered with bullet holes. The curtains were shredded and burned by gunfire, walls, floors, and ceilings fissured and pock-marked in every direction. In one apartment we were shown a neat pile of rocket parts, bullet casings, mortar shells, and empty flares||8/4/2008|
|Riding Herd On The Wild West Bank ||James Kitfield - National Journal - With help from the Israeli Supreme Court, Peace Now recently obtained documents on building permits and demolition orders from the Israeli Defense Ministry, which administers the West Bank. In the last seven years, the ministry has rejected 94 percent of Palestinian construction requests, approving only 91 of 1,624 applications. Over the same period, Israeli settlers constructed 18,472 houses in their West Bank settlements. Israel likewise issued demolition orders against 4,993 illegally built Palestinian houses, one-third of which were carried out -- meaning that for every construction permit granted to a Palestinian, 18 houses were torn down. "What those figures show is that the de facto policy of Israel is a quiet transfer of land to settlers and the expulsion of Palestinians," Hagit Ofran said. "They don`t accomplish that by force, nor do they roll up with trucks to take Palestinians away. They just don`t allow them to rebuild their villages or repair their homes."
|Supreme Court orders evacuation of illegal settlement outpost ||IMEMC - The Israeli High Court of Justice decided to evacuate an illegal settlement outpost which was constructed by the settlers on a privately owned Palestinian land in Al Khader town, west of the West Bank city of Bethlehem. The appeal of landowner Moneer Mousa was lodged through Hagit Ofran of the Peace Now Settlement Monitoring Team. ||8/4/2008|
|Gazans brace for major incursion as Israeli forces enter Jabalia ||Ma`an News Agency (Gaza) - Thirty Israeli military vehicles entered the northern Gaza Strip city of Jabalia early on Tuesday morning, stopping 100 meters from a Palestinian residential neighborhood, witnesses said. Jabalia residents said the Israeli forces have been firing heavily towards the Palestinian houses, but no casualties have yet been reported. The mood in Jabalia is tense, with residents fearing that the vehicles could signal the beginning of a major Israeli incursion.
|Hebron Rehabilitation Committee||Emad Abdallah Hamdan - This Week in Palestine - "The oppressive measures taken by the Israeli military authorities in the old city of Hebron have seriously impacted the renovation works of the Hebron Rehabilitation Committee. Recently, the authorities have issued a number of military orders that prohibit the renovation of buildings near Israeli settlement outposts for security reasons. The committee gave priority to renovating buildings around settlement outposts in order to thwart settlement expansion in the old city"||7/4/2008|
|Female detainee tortured and in need of immediate medical attention||Saed Bannoura - IMEMC & Agencies - "Female detainee Shereen Mohammad Hasan, from Bethlehem city, voiced an appeal to several human rights groups to intervene for her release in order to receive adequate medical treatment, as she is losing her sight and suffering a kidney disease. [...] On Sunday, Shereen was sentenced to 45 months imprisonment”||7/4/2008|
|Army shells Gaza; one resident killed, his nephew injured||Saed Bannoura -
"Eyewitnesses reported that Mansour and his nephew were working in their land when the soldiers fired the shell."||6/4/2008|
|Two donkeys and the next war||Erela Dunayevski -
Don`t say we did not know 103 -
"Avner and Ofer the policemen told us they were helpless and constrained by their commanders` orders. I told them that Jews should not say that they are "only obeying orders.""
|From Jenin to Beijing||Zadok Yehezkeli -
""I beg them, let me out. Don`t ruin my Olympic dream. I`m 28, and I have been running for 10 years for this. It has nothing to do with politics. Please.""
|Petah Tikva military court report : 19 remand extensions were discussed, including several minors and two women. Three detainees were barred from seeing their attorneys. ||MachsomWatch -
Muntaha Ya`akub Muhammad Hatib, 851986349, a 17- year old girl from Balata refugee camp. Arrested on 21.3.08, on suspicion of complicity in a suicide attack (together with her cousin who is also in court today for remand extension). She claims that she agreed to take part in the suicide attack in order to test someone she suspected of spying for Israel.
|IMEMC News from the occupied territories||Twelve Aqsa brigades fighters escape from Jneid Palestinian prison in Nablus -- Hamas: “Palestinian security forces arrested 10 Hamas members in the West Bank”
-- An Appeal to release a sick Palestinian detainee--Gaza siege claims the life of another infant, woman-- Ten Injured at the weekly Bil`in Protest||5/4/2008|
|Israeli organisation accuses Ma`an of using "hate language" ||Ma`an News Agency -
The example cited from February 29, 2008, uses the terms “occupation authorities”, “occupation municipality”, “residents of ...the territories occupied since 1948” and “ `Israeli` identity cards. Taken out of context, these certainly sound like biased and offensive terms. When looked at more closely, however, they are terms that reflect both the uneasy ethnic distinctions of Israeli society and Israel`s status, under international law, as an occupation force.`||5/4/2008|
|Weekly Report: On Israeli Human Rights Violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory ||Palestinian Centre for Human Rights - "During the reporting period, IOF killed 6 activists of the Palestinian resistance and wounded another 6 Palestinians, including a farmer, in the Gaza Strip. They also wounded 10 Palestinian civilians, including 4 children and a journalist, in the West Bank."||4/4/2008|
|Israel Slow to Admit Gaza Patients, U.N. Says||Isabel Kershner - The New York Times - "A new report by the World Health Organization says that 32 Palestinians from Gaza have died in recent months largely because of Israeli restrictions that delayed their access to urgent medical treatment in Israel"||3/4/2008|
|Egypt opens Gaza crossing for 1 day||ASSOCIATED PRESS -
"In addition to the Egyptians, Palestinian trucks and vehicles were allowed to return to Gaza, the Egyptian official said. The vehicles had been originally brought by Palestinian merchants to carry commodities during border breach but then were not allowed to return when the border was reclosed."||2/4/2008|
|Gaza: 2 Killed as Violence Declines ||ISABEL KERSHNER -
"Egypt has been trying to broker a period of calm after hostilities in late February and March left more than 120 Palestinians and 5 Israelis dead."
|Israeli High Court temporarily freezes order to confiscate belongings of two charities in Hebron||Saed Bannoura -
"Farraj added that the two societies have a good case at the court but they need real support from the Palestinian Authority, the Arab World and the International Community."
|Lecturer at the Law Department of A-Najah university Dr. Gassan Khaled re-abducted by the IOF||David Nir - email - (...) just two weeks since he was released from a two month ordeal (since January 16) that included three weeks of torture. The soldiers, armed with killing machinery and heavy hammers, smashed open several doors of the building, of his family`s apartment(...) They forced him to join them in his pajamas.||2/4/2008|
|New law forbids Israelis to repair cars in Palestinian garages ||Amnon Meranda - Y-net - Knesset approves bill determining that Israelis caught repairing their vehicle within Palestinian Authority territories could be sent to prison for up to three years.
|The blood on Barak`s hands ||Gush Shalom/Ha`aretz - Palestinian medics identified the dead children as sisters Rudina and Hana Abu Meatik, ages 6 and 3; and their brothers, Saleh, 4 and Mousab, 15 months. The children`s mother, Miyasar, succumbed to her wounds shortly after. Defense Minister Ehud Barak blamed Hamas for the continuing deaths of Gaza residents. Gush Shalom: "Barak has a lot of blood on his hands". Tommorow (Wed.) Gush activists will accompany a consignment of medicines and medical equipment, bought through 60,000 Dollars` donations, to the Gaza Strip border - to present "a humanist alternative to the government`s
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